Urban and Rural Characteristics with a focus on Preston

Preston (in the North East of England) is split into wards by the city council. These are of similar sizes but allow us to develop how the demographics of an area change as you move between areas of a city from the City Centre outwards. The four areas I will be looking at are the following:


  • FISHWICK Inner City Area – High density 19th Century terraced housing built during Industrial revolution.  It has a few corner shops but no terraces or shopping centres as residents travel to the city centre for these.
  •  LONGTON – Rural Area – Many developments since 1960s, housing majority is semi detached or detached with gardens and garages. A59 Longton Bypass provides quick access to the city and there are many shops and services as well as a supermarket.




City —————————————————————————————-> Rural

Characteristic Statistic Fishwick Longton
Housing % homes without central heating 17.5 3.7
Ethnicity % population “white” 66.5 99.2
Age Structure Average Age 32.9 43.4
Wealth %Households with one car 57.4 88.5
Employment % 16-74 unemployed 5.9 1.1
Employment %working in management / professional jobs 15.7 30.7


Comparisons between Fishwick and Longton

  • Fishwick housing is from the industrial revolutions so houses are small and cramped. Mainly 19th Century Terraces whereas Longton has had a lot of new building developments in the last 50 years and is mainly semi and fully detached buildings
  • Fishwick has 5% of houses without central heating whereas Longton has 3.7%.
  • The ethnicity of the population changes drastically between Fishwick (66.5% “white”) and Longton (99.2%) showing number of ethnic minorities decreases as you move away from city centre.
  • Percentage of households with a car rises from 57% to 88% showing more wealth
  • Unemployment falls from 5.9% (Fishwick) to 1.1% (Longton)

Implications on Social Welfare:

  • There are a lower percentage of people living in Longton without central heating than Fishwick. This could lead to the number of people suffering from illness in Fishwick being higher as they are more likely to become ill in the cooler damper conditions.
  • In November 2014 there were 55 crimes reported in Longton whereas Fishwick saw 64 reported crimes. This could show that the higher level of unemployment and higher levels of poverty (lower car ownership) have leads to people resorting to crime.
  • There are more people working in management / professional jobs in Longton than Fishwick. This is likely to lead to those in Longton earning more. A lack of wealth in an area can lead to problems such as increased debt and health issues such as obesity and depression.